• Dr Kapil Raghuwanshi
  • Dr Swapnesh Sagar
  • Dr Mahendra Gandhe
  • Dr Bhavana Tiwari


Introduction: Depression is a psychiatric disorder characterized by depressed mood, loss of interest in activities and loss of energy that lasts for two weeks or more. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a group of metabolic disorders that share common phenotype of chronic hyperglycaemia.

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in cellular responses. This signalling molecule primarily acknowledged for its importance in immune responses and apoptosis.

High prevalence of depression and diabetes mellitus worldwide causes increased morbidity & mortality & have increased economic burden in the community. Pathogenesis of depression and diabetes may be associated with the destruction of brain cells and pancreatic cells resulting from immune and inflammatory mediators.

Studies about the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of depression and diabetes mellitus, shown conflicting and non-conclusive results hence any reliable clue will be considered valuable.

Aims & Objective: To compare the serum levels of TNF-α in patients of depression with diabetes mellitus and in patients of depression without diabetes mellitus.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 50 patients of depression with diabetes mellitus (case group) and 50 age and gender matched patients of depression without diabetes (control group). Serum TNF-α levels were measured for both the groups.

Results: The mean concentrations of TNF-α in the case group and the control group were 28.98 ± 16.47 pg/ml and 10.19 ± 5.05 pg/ml respectively. The difference was to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) Thus our study yielded higher levels of serum TNF-α in case group than in control group.

Conclusion: This study has shown that inflammation is more evident inpatients of depression with diabetes mellitus as compared to in patients of depression without diabetes.

Keywords: Depression, Diabetes, inflammation, TNF-α


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Original Research Article