Muhammad Anka Nasiru, Faruk U. Abubakar


The objective of this study was to present data screening and preliminary analysis concerning the influence of psychosocial rudiments on the treatment-seeking behavior among obstetric fistula patients in Nigeria. Precisely, this study focused on the data screening and the preliminary analysis procedure that are imperative for conducting multivariate data analysis. This study employed a stratified random sampling method to select 321 respondents, of which 313 questionnaires were established to be suitable for the final data analysis, utilizing statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 22. The data was screened and cleaned to satisfy the assumptions of multivariate analysis through assessing the response rate, descriptive statistics, missing value, univariate and the multivariate outliers, normality, multicollinearity, and non-response bias. Generally, the result of the analysis indicated that the data of this study was established to be pure and receptive for further multivariate analysis.


Keywords: Data screening, preliminary analysis, treatment-seeking behavior, psychosocial rudiments, obstetric fistula, Nigeria

Full Text:



Abdulkadir A. Zabedah S. & Aidi A. (2017). Performance Management Antecedents and Public Sector, Organizational Performance: Data Screening and Preliminary Analysis. International Journal of Academic, Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7 (9), pp. 19-31.

Abdulwahab, L. ZulkhairiMd D. Galadima, M.B (2011) Data screening and Preliminary Analysis of the Determinants of User Acceptance of Telecentre. Journal of Information Systems: New Paradigms 1 (1), pp 11-23.

Akhter, S. Maternal healthcare-seeking behavior of women from lower and socio-economic groups of Dhaka, Bangladesh-fear, or fusion? A Doctoral (Ph.D.) dissertation thesis. 2015.

Badara, M. S. &Zabedah S.S. (2014) Internal Audit Effectiveness: Data Screening and Preliminary Analysis. Asian Social Science; 10 (10), pp. 76-85.

Baron, R. M. & Kenny D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of personality and social psychology, 51(6) pp. 1173-1182.

Behrami, M. A., Afashbahar, O., Shakahifar, M. &Montazeral, F. R. (2104). Developing a valid tool of treatment-seeking behavior survey for Iran. Journal of novel applied sciences 3(6), pp. 651-660.

Bellows, B., Bach, R., Baker, Z. & Warren, C. Barriers to obstetric fistula treatment in low-income countries: A systematic review, Population council. 2014.

Borgman, R. & Akin, J. Social support, gender, and treatment-seeking behaviour for substance abuse: does social support influence treatment attendance among substance-abusing women and men. Discovery; Georgia state honors college undergraduate research journal. 2012; 1(13), 335-351.

Daniel C. M. Application of Data Screening Procedures in Stress Research (2007) Research Report. The New School Psychology Bulletin 2007, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp.41-45

Devkota, H. Murray, E., Kett, M. & Nora, G. (2017). Health care provider’s attitudes toward disability and experience of women with disability in the use of maternal healthcare services in rural Nepal.Reproductive health, 14(17).

Dunne, C. L., Frazier, J., & Gardner, G. E. Women’s perceptions of social support duringlabor development, reliability and Validity of the birth companion support questionnaire. Journal of midwifery. 2014; 4 (67) 1-6.

Federal Ministry of Health.National Strategic Framework for the Elimination of Obstetric fistula in Nigeria, 2011-2015, 2012; 7-20.

Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications.

Frazier, P. A., Barron, K. E. & Tix, A. P. (2004). Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling p sychology research. Journal of counseling psychology, 51(1), pp. 115-134.

Gharoro, E. P. & Agholor, K. N. Aspect of psychosocial problems of patients with vesicovaginal fistula. Journal of Obstetrics and gynecology, 2009; 29(7), 644-647.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2013) Partial least squares structural equation modeling: Rigorous applications, better results and higher acceptance Long Range Planning, 46(1–2), 1-12.

Hazelden Betty Ford foundation (2015). What is an intervention? pp. 4-16

Jeremy, M. Transportation, distance and healthcare utilization for older adults in rural and small urban areas. Small Urban and Rural transit center Upper Great Plains transportation institute, North Dakota State University, Fargo. 2010.

Kimiya, Y. (2011). Women’s autonomy and reproductive health care utilization: empirical evidence from Tajkistan. Health policy, 102(2-3), pp-304-13.

Lindner, J. R., &Wingenbach, G. J. (2002) Communicating the handling of nonresponse error in Journal of Extension Research in Brief articles. Journal ofExtension, 40(6), pp.1-5.

Lo, C. M. & Lee P. H. Prevalence and impacts of poor sleep on quality of life and associated factors of good sleepers in a sample of older Chinese adults. Health quality of life, Biomed central, 2012; 10(22), pp. 23-39.

Maiyaki, A. A., &Mouktar, S. S. M. (2011, June). Influence of service quality, corporate image and perceived value on customer behavioral responses in Nigerian Banks: Data screening and preliminary analysis. In International Conference on Management Proceeding pp. 547568

Mannava, P., Durrant, K., Fisher, J., Chersich, M. &Luchters, S. (2015). Attitudes and behaviors of maternal health care providers in interactions with clients: a systematic review. Globalization and health, 11(36), pp. 1-17.

Mizck, L. S. &Russinova, Z. Intersectional stigma and the acceptance process of women with mental illness. Women andtherapy, 2015; 38, 14-30.

Morphy H., Dunn, K. M., Lewis, M., Boardman, H. F. & Craft, P. R. Epidemiology of Insomnia: a longitudinal study in a UK population, Sleep, pubmed, 2007, 30(3), pp. 274-280.

Namasivayam, A., Osuvra, D. C., Syed, R. &Antai, D. (2012). The role of gender inequities in women’s access to reproductive health care: a population-level study of Namibia, Kenya, Nepal, and India. International journal of women’s health, 4, pp. 351-364. Doi:102147/UWH.532569.

Odoemelam C. C. (2015) Pattern of exposure to communication intervention on obstetric fistula among men in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. New media and mass communication, 33, pp. 1-12.

Pallant, J. (2010). SPSS survival manual, 4th. England: McGraw-Hill Education

Rahman, M., Mostapha, M. G. &Hoque, M. (2014). Women’s household decision-making autonomy and contraceptive behaviour among Bangladashi women. Sex reprod health, 5(1), pp. 815.

Ridder, D. D., Badlani, G. H., Brownin, A., Singh, P. Sombie, I. & Wall, L. L. Fistula in the developing world. Committee 18. In: Health publication ltd. UK, 2009, 1419-1458.

Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., & Straub, D. W. (2012). A Critical Look at the Use of PLS-SEM in MIS Quarterly.MIS Quarterly, 36(1), pp. 3-14

Rodrigue, J. P., Comtois, C. & Slack, B. The geography of transport system.Routledge publishers, New York, NY.Dimension. 2013.

Roush, K. M. Social implication of obstetric fistula: An integrative review. Journal of midwifery & women’s health. 2009; 54(2), 21-33. DOI:10.1016/j.imwh.2008.09.005.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2013) Research methods for business: A skill building approach, 6th edition, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Shehu A. M. & Mahmood R. (2014). Market Orientation, Knowledge Management and Entrepreneurial Orientation as Predictors of SME Performance: Data Screening and Preliminary Analysis. Information an Knowledge Management Vol.4, No.7, pp. 12-23.

Siddle, K., Mwambingu, s., Malinga, T. &Fiander, A. Psychosocial impact of obstetric fistula in women presenting for surgical care in Tanzania.Internationalgyenecol journal, 2013; 24, 1215-1220.

Strauss, K., Maclean, C., Troy, A. & Litternburg, B. Driving distance as a barrier to glycericcontrol in diabetes. Journal of general internal medicine, 2006; 21 (4), 378-380.

Tabachnick, B. G., &Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics, 5th. Needham Height, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Waaldijk, K. (2010). National VVF project: Nigeria evaluation report xi, first half 1997, Katsina, Kano, Sokoto, Birnin Kebbi and Maradi. Rtrieved from

Wall, L. L. Overcoming phase 1 delays: the critical components of obstetric fistula prevention programs in resources-poor countries. Wall BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 2012; 12(68), 1-13.

Woldeammanuel. Factors contributing to the delay in seeking treatment for women with obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. Doctoral (PhD) thesis. 2012


  • There are currently no refbacks.